Multiple Representations in Education: A Literature Review and the Development of an Instrument to Measure Representational Fluency

Wisam Zaqoot (PhD student)
Contact Person
Dr OH Lih Bin, Associate Professor, School of Computing

  23 Jan 2020 Thursday, 02:00 PM to 03:30 PM

 MR1, COM1-03-19

Examiners: Assistant Professor Desmond Ong and Dr Lek Hsiang Hui


Multiple representations refer to the combination of formats used to generate, process, or present information. Examples include diagrams, tables, formulas and written words among many others. Such multiple representations are widely used in science, math, technology and engineering courses. In this report, we present a literature review we conducted on the use of multiple representations in education. We also provide a more focused review on the subtopic of representational fluency. Representational fluency refers to learner's ability to reason and work among multiple representations. Next, we build on this review to justify the need for a new instrument (RFT) to measure the representational fluency for primary school students and set the foundations for this proposed instrument by identifying the competences it has to cover, in the light of literature, local curriculum, previous exams, and discussions with educators. We design the questions of the test following the predetermined competences. In addition, we report a pilot study that we administered to test and validate the RFT. The results of the pilot study are presented and discussed. Finally, we elucidate the next stages of our project, which include testing and using our actual RFT. The outcomes of using this test are planned to be used later to develop an intelligent system that provides remedial interventions customized for each student with representational fluency difficulties. We expect that our work will shed light on one of the important abilities required by young learners and can contribute toward a more personalized technology-enhanced learning for the primary school education.